The treatment of insomnia begins with education about the sleep problem and appropriate sleep hygiene measures. Before therapy is instituted, most patients are asked to maintain a sleep diary for 1-2 weeks. This provides a clearer picture of the degree of sleep disturbance and allows development of a tailored treatment.

Strong evidence supports the use of nonpharmacologic interventions like family therapy and CBT, for insomnia. According to the NIMH, CBT is now considered the most appropriate treatment for patients with primary insomnia. Use of this therapy is based on the fact that primary insomnia is associated with physiologic, emotional, and cognitive arousal and conditioning to arousal in bed.